İngilizce Reported Speech Konu Anlatımı
Bu dersimizde sizlere reported speech konusunu açıklamaya çalışacağız. “Reported Speech” türkçeye çevrilirken dolaylı “anlatım” olarak çevrilmiştir.
Report: rapor etmek, anlatmak, söylemek, bildirmek.
Speech: konuşma, demeç, nutuk, hitabe, söylev, anlatma, savunma, konuşma yeteneği, söz söyleme, konuşma şekli, şive, dil, ses
Kelimelerin anlamlarından da anlaşılacağı gibi bu konu, söylenmiş bir cümlenin aktarılması anlamına gelir.
Bir cümleyi aktarmanın iki yolu vardır.Örnek:
Eric: I’m feeling sick.
Eric’in cümlelerini aynen tekrar edebilirsiniz (direct speech=dolaysız söz): Eric said, “I’m feeling sick.”
Ya da “reported speech” kullanabilirsiniz: Eric said (that) he was feeling sick. (that kullanımı isteğe bağlıdır)
Eric said, “I’m feeling sick.”
Eric said (that) he was feeling sick.
İki cümleyi karşılaştırırsak,
am → was
I → he
şeklindeki dönüşüme dikkat edelim.
Buradan çıkarılacak sonuç, reported speech kullandığımız zaman “genellikle” cümlenin geçmiş zamana çevrilerek söylenmesi söz konusudur. Bundan dolayı reported speech kullanırken fiiller geçmiş zamana dönüştürülerek kullanılır.
am/is → was
have/has → had
can → could
are → were
will → would
do/want/know → did/wanted/knew
Bu değişikliklerin yanında, dolaysız anlatımla söylenen cümle (direct speech), reported speech’e çevrilirken bazı kelimeler de dönüştürülmelidir:
tomorrow → the next day / the following day
yesterday → the day before
here → there
this morning → that morning
today → that day
tonight → that night
next / on Tuesday → the following Tuesday
last Tuesday → the previous Tuesday
the day after tomorrow → in two days’ time
ago → before / previously
Bazı fiiller ise değişmezler:
would → would
could → could
might → might
should → should
ought to → ought to
Aşağıdaki örnekte, Edward bize bazı şeyler söylüyor ve biz de bize söylenenleri reported speech kullanarak başkasına aktaracağız:
- I’m going away for a few days. I’ll call you when I get back.
- Barbara has bought a new car.
- I want to go on vacation, but I don’t know where to go.
- I’m going to quit my job.
- I can’t come to the party on Friday.
- My parents are very well.
Şimdi bu cümleleri reported speech ile aktaralım:
- Edward said (that) he was going away for a few days and would call me when he got back.
- Edward said (that) Barbara had bought a new car.
- Edward said (that) he wanted to go on vocation, but he didn’t know where to go.
- Edward said (that) he was going to quit his job.
- Edward said (that) he couldn’t come to the party on Friday.
- Edward said (that) his parents were very well.
Burada görüldüğü gibi, aktarma cümlesinde geçmiş zaman dilini kullanıyoruz.
I’m going → he was going
will → would
2. örnekte present perfect tense’in past perfecte dönüştüğüne dikkat edelim:
has bought → had bought
want to go → wanted to go / don’t know → didn’t know
going to quit → was going to quit
can’t come → couldn’t come
are very well → were very well
Geçmiş zaman cümlelerini aktarırken cümleyi genellikle aynı zaman kalıbı ile aktarırız. Bununla beraber past perfect zamanını da kullanabiliriz.
Direct: Terry said “I woke up feeling sick and so I stayed in bed.”
Reported: Terry said (that) he woke (or had woken) up feeling sick so he stayed (or had stayed) in bed.
Aşağıdaki örnekte Eric ile buluşmamız ve onun bize söylediği cümlelerin nasıl reported speech’e dönüştüklerini inceleyelim:
1. I’m living in London now.
2. My father isn’t very well.
3. Sharon and Paul are getting married next month.
4. Margaret has had a baby.
5. I don’t know what Fred is doing.
6. I saw Helen at a party in June and she seemed fine.
7. I haven’t seen Diane recently.
8. I’m not enjoying my job very much.
9. You can come and stay at my flat if you are ever in London.
10. My car was stolen a few weeks ago.
11. I want to go on holiday but I can’t afford it.
12. I’ll tell Ann I saw you.
Bir gün sonra Eric’in anlattıklarını başka bir arkadaşımıza anlatıyoruz (reported speech ile):
1. Eric said that he was living in London now.
2. He said that his father wasn’t very well.
3. He said that Sharon and Paul were getting married next month.
4. He said that Margaret had had a baby.
5. He said that he didn’t know what Fred was doing.
6. He said that he had/He’d seen Helen at a party in June and she had seemed fine, or He said that he saw Helen...and she seemed fine.
7. He said that he hadn’t seen Diane recently.
8. He said that he wasn’t enjoying his job very much.
9. He said that I could come and stay at his flat if I was ever in London.
10. He said that his car had been stolen a few weeks ago. ya da ...that his car was stolen.
11. He said he wanted to go on holiday but he couldn’t afford it.
12. He said he would / he’d tell Ann he had / he’d seen me. ya da ...he saw me.
Fiilin Zamanının Değişmeyeceği Durumlar
Reported Speech kullanımlarının tamamında zamanı değiştirmek gerekmez. Eğer rapor ettiğiniz bilgi hala doğru bir bilgi ise, fiilin zamanını değiştirmeniz gerekmez.
- Direct: Philip said ‘New York is more lively than London.’
- Reported: Philip said that New York is more lively than London.
(New York hala Londra’dan daha canlı, heyecan verici bir yer. Durum değişmedi.)
- Direct: Nicole said ‘I want to go to New York next year.’
- Reported: Nicole said that she wants to go to New York next year.
Bu iki örnekteki fiilleri geçmiş zamana çevirerek de rapor edebiliriz:
Philip said that New York was more lively than London.
Nicole said that she wanted to go to New York next year.