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GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

GERUNDS- "Ing"

**A gerund is a form of verb that functions as a noun and ends in ing.

Gerund isim olarak kullanilan ve sonuna ing eki getirilerek kullanilan bir fiil seklidir.

Example: Ornek:

He enjoys studying English. O(erkek) Ingilizce calismaktan hoslanir.

**Gerunds are used after the expressions to be worth, no use and do you mind.

Gerund seklindeki fiiller bazen "deger", "bosuna" ve "onemi yoksa-sorun degilse" gibi kaliplardan sonar da kullanilabilir.

Example: Ornek:

a) The Edinburgh Castle is worth seeing. a) Edinburgh Kalesi gorulmeye deger.

b) It's no use trying to wake him up so early b) Onu bu kadar erken kaldirmaya calisman bosuna.

c) Do you mind closing that window? c) Sorun degilse su cami kapatir misin?

**Gerunds may also be used after prepositions.

Gerund seklindeki filler edatlardan sonra da kullanilabilirler.

Example: Ornek:

Jack is fond of playing football Jack futbol oynamayi cok sever.

Gerund (-ing eki)soru, olumlu ve olumsuz cumlelerde ayni sekilde kullanilir.

Ornek:

The sales man got tired of waiting for Mrs. Smith.

Do you admit breaking the vase?

My brother doesn't enjoy travelling long distance.

The new film is not worth seeing.

She left suddenly without saying anything.

The teacher can't blame me for coming late.

INFINITIVES -"To" ( Mastar )

A verb form that functions in many forms in a sentences.

Fiilin "to" eki ile bir cok cumle icinde farkli sekilde kullanilmasidir.

a)To indicate the purpose or intention of an action:

Amac belirtmek icin(yapilan is icin)

Example: She is here to see her brother. Ornek: O(kiz) erkek kardesini gormek icin burda.

b) As the subject of the sentence:

Cumlenin oznesi olarak

Example: To be or not to be. Ornek: Olmak yada olmamak

c) Used after adjectives.

Sifatlardan sonraki kullanimi

Example: It is very rude of you to say that. Ornek: Bunu soyledigin icin cok kabasin.

d)After an adjective+noun.

Sifat ve isimden sonraki kullanimi

Example: It is a nice place to live in summer. Ornek: Yazin yasamak icin guzel bir yer.

Certain verbs can be followed by either gerunds or infinitives i.e. Start, begin, continue, like, neglect, hate, love, prefer and intend.

Yukarida ornek olarak verilen(alti cizili) fiiller hem gerund'dan hem de infinitive (mastar) den sonra gelebilir.

Example:

She has started to take swimming lessons.

O(kiz)yuzme dersleri almaya basladi.

She has started taking swimming lessons.

However, there are certain verbs such as Enjoy, mind, stop, consider, appreciate and finish can only be followed by gerunds not infinitives.

Ancak bazi fiiller vardir ki(yukarida ornek olarak verilen-alti cizili) infinitive(mastar) dan sonra degil, sadece gerund'dan sonra kullanilabilir .

O(erkek)sigara icmeyi birakti.

Dogru: He has stopped smoking.

Yanlis: He has stopped to smoke.

Onlar arabayla seyahat etmeyi umursamazlar.

Dogru: They don't mind travelling in a car.

Yanlis: They don't mind to travel in a car.

Quick Test:

*Complete each of the following sentences with a gerund.

Mark intends............(take)science lessons this semester.

Julie will not neglect.............(tell)her husband about the accident.

The enemies have continued ...........(build)up their armies.

Does your friend mind................(sleep) on sofa?

*Complete each of the following sentences with an infinitive.

Jason intended...........(say) sorry to his brother.

The doctor will start..........(see) patients shortly.

Do you like...........(work) outdoors?

We hope..............(wash) our car today.




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